Estrogen is a hormone that is produced by the ovaries in women and the testes in men. It plays a number of important roles in the body, including regulating the menstrual cycle, maintaining bone density, and influencing mood and cognitive function.
Estrogen metabolism refers to the way that the body processes and eliminates estrogen. This process occurs in the liver and involves the conversion of estrogen into different chemical forms.
There are several different pathways involved in estrogen metabolism, including the following:
Phase 1 metabolism: This involves the conversion of estrogen into intermediates, such as catechol estrogens, through the action of enzymes such as cytochrome P450.
Phase 2 metabolism: This involves the conjugation of estrogen intermediates with other molecules, such as glucuronic acid or sulfuric acid, to form more water-soluble compounds. These compounds can then be more easily eliminated from the body through urine or feces.
Enterohepatic circulation: This refers to the recycling of estrogen and its intermediates between the liver and the intestine. This can occur when estrogen that has been conjugated in the liver is deconjugated by bacteria in the intestine, allowing it to be reabsorbed and returned to the liver for further metabolism.
Estrogen metabolism is important because it helps to regulate estrogen levels in the body. Abnormal estrogen metabolism can lead to imbalances in estrogen levels, which can have a number of negative health effects, including an increased risk of hormone-dependent cancers such as breast cancer.
There are several factors that can influence estrogen metabolism, including genetics, diet, and certain medications. For example, certain genetic variations can increase or decrease the activity of enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism, while a high-fiber diet may increase estrogen excretion through the intestine.
Abnormal estrogen levels in the body may lead to unpleasant symptoms. Estrogen and its metabolites can be measure in the blood, urine and saliva.
If you think you may have an estrogen related health concern or just want to be proactive and keep your good health we at Mulberry may be able to help.